from Wikipedia Information technology (IT) is the application of computers to store, retrieve, transmit and
manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
IT is considered a subset of information and communications technology (ICT).
In 2012, Zuppo proposed an ICT hierarchy where each hierarchy level "contain some degree of commonality in
that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically
Business/IT was one level of the ICT hierarchy.
The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other
information distribution technologies such as television and telephones.
Several industries are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software,
electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, engineering, healthcare, e-commerce and computer services.
Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating and communicating information since the Sumerians in
Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first
appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler
commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name.
We shall call it information technology (IT).
" Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical
and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.
Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases
of IT development: pre-mechanical (3000 BC 1450 AD), mechanical (1450-1840), electromechanical (1840-1940)
electronic (1940present), and moreover, IT as a service.
This article focuses on the most recent period (electronic), which began in about 1940.
All people may experience periods of apathy. Disappointment and dejection are elements of life, and apathy is a normal way for humans to cope with such
stresses to be able to "shrug off" disappointments enables people to move forward and try other activities and
achieve new goals.
When the stresses pass, the apparent apathy also disappears.
A period of apathy can also be viewed as a normal and transient phase through which many adolescents pass.
It is important to note, however, that long-term apathy and detachment are not normal.
Apathy (also called perfunctoriness) is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, and concern.
Apathy is a state of indifference, or the suppression of emotions such as concern, excitement, motivation,
An apathetic individual has an absence of interest in or concern about emotional, social, spiritual,
philosophical and/or physical life and the world.
The apathetic may lack a sense of purpose or meaning in their life.
An apathetic person may also exhibit insensibility or sluggishness.
In positive psychology, apathy is described as a result of the individual feeling they do not possess the
level of skill required to confront a challenge (i.e. "Flow").
It may also be a result of perceiving no challenge at all (e.g. the challenge is irrelevant to them, or
conversely, they have learned helplessness).
Apathy may be a sign of more specific mental problems such as schizophrenia or dementia.
However, apathy is something that all people face in some capacity.
It is a natural response to disappointment, dejection, and stress.
As a response, apathy is a way to Workshopt about these negative feelings.
This type of common apathy is usually only felt in the short-term and when it becomes a long-term or even
lifelong state is when deeper social and psychological issues are most likely present.
Apathy should be distinguished from reduced affect, which refers to reduced emotional expression but not
necessarily reduced emotion.
Adjusting Your Perspective / Taking Action / Developing Healthy Habits
Adversity is more than just one difficulty or setback; it's a series of misfortunes that keep you from
achieving your goals and finding happiness.
This may include social injustice and personal tragedy, like illness or loss.
These experiences can lead to hopelessness and depression.
Everyone will experience adversity at some point in life, but you can overcome it with the right
attitude and hard work.
Adjusting Your Perspective
1 Define and prioritize problems. When experiencing adversity, you can easily become distracted with minor
setbacks and disappointments. These can quickly add up and become overwhelming. It's important to differentiate
between minor inconveniences or disappointment and real obstacles to achieving your goals. For example, losing your
ride to school and having to take the bus is an inconvenience; losing your job and no longer being able to afford
classes is a major obstacle to graduating college.
Defining problems and understanding which is most pressing will help you develop an effective plan of attack.
2 Accept the inevitability of adversity. While some may experience more than others, everyone will suffer
setbacks and periods of difficulty. By accepting adversity as a normal part of life that happens to everyone, you'll
waste less time feeling stuck and helpless.
Accepting adversity doesn't mean you won't feel sad and frustrated by setbacks. Give yourself permission to feel
negative emotions, but try setting a time limit on how long you can dwell on them. For example, schedule 30 minutes
to cry and feel in your pain. When time is up, divert your attention to completing a task.
3 Believe in yourself. This probably isn't the first time you've experienced setbacks, which is compelling
evidence you're capable of overcoming adversity. You have survived every hardship you've experienced to date. You
have always found the necessary strength to overcome in the past, so there is no reason to think you won't be able to
do the same this time.
Try making a list of past experiences of adversity and success to see that your resilience is pretty impressive.
4 Look for the positive. If you want to overcome adversity, then you have to focus on the positive, whether it
means the positive aspects of your situation, or the positive results you'll feel if you achieve what you want in the
future. Make a list of all of the good things in your life, or all of the good things you may have to look forward to,
and you'll see that there's more to be happy about than you think.
If you are struggling to see the positive in your own situation, look for inspiration in others' stories.
5 Reframe your mistakes as learning opportunities. Don't look at your mistakes as failures. Instead,
understand and acknowledge when you've done something wrong and identify what you have learned from the situation
and what you will do differently the next time around.
If you are struggling to find opportunities to learn, try telling someone else the story of what happened and ask
him or her to pick out lessons to take away. Tell the story in the third person to increase the objectivity of the
6 Focus on the future. Learn what you can from the past and quickly shift to applying those lessons to the
future. The past cannot be changed, so lingering on it may contribute to feelings of hopelessness. The future,
however, represents possibility.
To help shift your focus to the future, understand a difficult past can make a successful future even more rewarding,
so overcoming adversity becomes a future goal.
1 Set realistic goals. Setting reasonable goals and breaking them up into smaller goals that can be achieved
in succession will help you to remain motivated and decrease frustration. Your confidence will get a boost each time
you achieve a small goal progressing to a larger goal. For example, if you want to lose 30 pounds, set a goal to
lose one pound a week. It will take a long time to lose 30 pounds, so focusing on smaller weekly goals will provide
opportunities to regularly boost your confidence.
Focusing on smaller goals also makes setbacks seem less significant. Failing to lose one pound doesn't seem as bad as
failing to lose 30.
2 Create visual representations of goals. Having visual reminders of your goals in various locations will
help to motivate and focus your energy. Keep reminders in your home, office, locker and in your backpack or handbag.
These representations may be very basic or extremely elaborate depending on your preferences. For some, this may be
simply posting lists of your goals in key places, while others might enjoy making collages.
3 Have a Plan B. Look for multiple solutions to your problems and create contingency plans. Having options
will help you remain hopeful and provide alternative routes to success, should your first attempt fail.
Make a list of all possible solutions to your problem. Writing down potential solutions will make them feel more
4 Get a mentor. A mentor will help provide guidance and support, keeping you focused on your goals. Mentors
are a positive source of escape from adverse situations. You may have multiple mentors to provide various points of
view and guide you in various aspects of life.
Choosing a mentor may seem daunting, but you probably know several people who would make great mentors. Consider
teachers or professors, family members, or colleagues.
5 Refuse to quit. Giving up will not solve any of your problems. Most circumstances eventually change. You
may find new resources and solutions just by staying on task.
It's ok to take a break from a source of frustration, but commit to returning to it as soon as you are in a less
Developing Healthy Habits
Take care of your physical health. Regular exercise, a healthy diet, and quality sleep all contribute to a greater
sense of overall wellbeing, increased resilience, and higher self-esteem. Adopt a healthy lifestyle to better cope
with current adversity and inoculate yourself against future adversity.
Always start new exercise routines gradually to prevent injury and speak with your doctor first.
Start a gratitude journal. Regularly acknowledging all you have to be grateful for will promote an ongoing positive
perspective. A positive attitude will help you tackle future problems and prevent you from feeling overwhelmed.
Spend 10-15 minutes a day thinking about what you're grateful for.
Nourish your support system. Having people to turn to in your times of adversity will provide comfort and support.
Developing a support system before you are in need will make it easier to engage those resources when the time comes.
Pay frequent attention to friends and family to keep those relationships healthy.
Schedule regular phone calls and dates to maintain and strengthen connections.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case, with or without there being
empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
In other words, belief is when someone thinks something is reality, true, when they have no absolute verified
foundation for their certainty of the truth or realness of something.
Another way of defining belief is, it is a mental representation of an attitude positively orientated towards
the likelihood of something being true.
In the context of Ancient Greek thought, two related concepts were identified with regards to the concept of belief:
pistis and doxa.
Simplified, we may say that pistis refers to trust and confidence, while doxa refers to opinion and acceptance.
The English word doctrine is derived from doxa.
Belief's purpose is to guide action and not to indicate truth.
In epistemology, philosophers use the term belief to refer to personal attitudes associated with true or
false ideas and concepts.
However, belief does not require active introspection and circumspection.
For example, we never ponder whether or not the sun will rise.
We simply assume the sun will rise.
Since belief is an important aspect of mundane life, according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
the question that must be answered is, how a physical organism can have beliefs
All of the familiar computer languages are compiled or interpreted languages. The statements
in these languages are high level statements that must be translated into the binary
language of the machine. A single high-level statement may turn into dozens of
machine-language commands (called opcodes).
We can program directly in binary, in machine language, which is fun for those of us who
are slightly crazy. Some programs really are developed at this low level, but the programmers
use assembly language, which lets them use names rather than numbers, and
helps in other ways as well.
We will start out with machine language, and then move on to assembly language.
my History with Information Technology
December 15, 2015 my History with Information Technology
I was first introduced to Mechanical Technology in a High School Typing course in the 1970's.
Aside from the Mathematics, Art and Trades programs, learning How to Operate Technology in a novel and creative
capacity, has always been a driving passion.
I was first introduced to Electronic Computer Technology in a Fortran programming course at the College of Commerce
while at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon late 70's.
This class, set me on a lifelong pursuit towards utilizing this technology in coming to a
better understanding of Human Mind and Condition.
The College's behavioral Statistics class however, turned me OFF from furthering this study and I withdrew to pursue a skilled labor
I found one in Computer Operations.
Today IS the very first day of the rest of your life.