In essence, flow is characterized by complete absorption in what one does.
Named by Mihály Csíkszentmihályi, the concept has been widely referenced across a variety of fields (and has an
especially big recognition in occupational therapy), though has existed for thousands of years under other guises,
notably in some Eastern religions.
Achieving flow is often colloquially referred to as being in the zone.
According to Csikszentmihályi, flow is completely focused motivation.
It is a single-minded immersion and represents perhaps the ultimate experience in harnessing the emotions in the
service of performing and learning.
In flow, the emotions are not just contained and channeled, but positive, energized, and aligned with the
task at hand.
The hallmark of flow is a feeling of spontaneous joy, even rapture, while performing a task, although flow is also
described (below) as a deep focus on nothing but the activity – not even oneself or one's emotions.
Flow has many of the same characteristics as (the positive aspects of) hyperfocus.
However, hyperfocus is not always described in a positive light.
Some examples include spending "too much" time playing video games or getting side-tracked and pleasurably absorbed
by one aspect of an assignment or task to the detriment of the overall assignment.
In some cases, hyperfocus can "capture" a person, perhaps causing them to appear unfocused or to start several
projects, but complete few.
The Autotelic Personality
Csíkszentmihályi hypothesized that people with several very specific personality traits may be better able to
achieve flow more often than the average person.
These personality traits include curiosity, persistence, low self-centeredness, and a high rate of performing
activities for intrinsic reasons only.
People with most of these personality traits are said to have an autotelic personality.
At this point, there is not much research on the autotelic personality, but results of the few studies that
have been conducted suggest that indeed some people are more prone to experience flow than others.
One researcher (Abuhamdeh, 2000) found that people with an autotelic personality have a greater preference for
"high-action-opportunity, high-skills situations that stimulate them and encourage growth" compared to those
without an autotelic personality.
It is in such high-challenge, high-skills situations that people are most likely to enter the flow state.
Experimental evidence shows that a balance between skills of the individual and demands of the task (compared
to boredom and overload) only elicits flow experiences in individuals characterized by an internal locus of control
or a habitual action orientation.
Several correlational studies found need for achievement to be a personal characteristic that fosters flow
Comfort (or being comfortable) is a sense of physical or psychological ease, often characterized as a lack of
Persons who are lacking in comfort are uncomfortable, or experiencing discomfort.
A degree of psychological comfort can be achieved by recreating experiences that are associated with
pleasant memories, such as engaging in familiar activities,
maintaining the presence of familiar objects, and consumption of comfort foods.
Comfort is a particular concern in health care, as providing comfort to the sick and injured is one goal of
healthcare, and can facilitate recovery.
Persons who are surrounded with things that provide psychological comfort may be described as being "in their
Because of the personal nature of positive associations, psychological comfort is highly subjective.
The use of "comfort" as a verb generally implies that the subject is in a state of pain, suffering or
affliction, and requires alleviation from that state.
Where the term is used to describe the support given to someone who has experienced a tragedy, the word is
synonymous with consolation or solace.
However, comfort is used much more broadly, as one can provide physical comfort to someone who is not in a
position to be uncomfortable.
For example, a person might sit in a chair without discomfort, but still find the addition of a pillow to
the chair to increase their feeling of comfort.
Like certain other terms describing positive feelings or abstractions (hope, charity, chastity), comfort may
also be used as a personal name.
"Comfortably Numb" (working title "The Doctor") is a song by the English rock band Pink Floyd, which first
appears on the 1979 double album The Wall.
It was also released as a single in 1980 with "Hey You" as the B-side.
It is one of only three songs on the album for which writing credits are shared between bassist Roger Waters
and guitarist David Gilmour.
The chorus melody was written by Gilmour while Waters contributed the lyrics and the music for the verses.
An early version of the song was included under the working title on the "Immersion Box Set" of The Wall,
released in 2012.
The song is one of Pink Floyd's most famous, and is renowned especially for its guitar solos in the middle
and at the end of the song.
In 2004, the song was ranked number 314 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All
In 2005, it became the last song ever to be performed by Waters, Gilmour, keyboardist Richard Wright, and
drummer Nick Mason together.
In 2011, the song was ranked 5th in the BBC Radio 4's listeners' Desert Island Discs choices.
The two guitar solos were ranked as the greatest guitar solos of all time by both Planet Rock listeners and
Hello? Hello? Hello?
Is there anybody in there?
Just nod if you can hear me
Is there anyone at home?
Come on now
I hear you're feeling down
Well I can ease your pain
Get you on your feet again
I'll need some information first
Just the basic facts
Can you show me where it hurts?
There is no pain you are receding
A distant ship smoke on the horizon
You are only coming through in waves
Your lips move but I can't hear what you're saying
When I was a child I had a fever
My hands felt just like two balloons
Now I've got that feeling once again
I can't explain you would not understand
This is not how I am
I have become comfortably numb
Just a little pinprick
There'll be no more, ah
But you may feel a little sick
Can you stand up?
I do believe it's working, good
That'll keep you going through the show
Come on it's time to go
Economic security or financial security is the condition of having stable income or other resources to support
a standard of living now and in the foreseeable future.
probable continued solvency
predictability of the future cash flow of a person or other economic entity, such as a country
employment security or job security
Financial security more often refers to individual and family money management and savings.
Economic security tends to include the broader effect of a society's production levels and monetary support for
is the probability that an individual will keep his or her job; a job with a high level of job security is
such that a person with the job would have a small chance of becoming unemployed.
Basic economic theory holds that during periods of economic expansion businesses experience increased demand,
which in turn necessitates investment in more capital or labor.
When businesses are experiencing growth, job confidence and security typically increase.
The opposite often holds true during a recession: businesses experience reduced demand and look to downsize
their workforces in the short term.
Governments and individuals are both motivated to achieve higher levels of job security.
Governments attempt to do this by passing laws (such as the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964) which make it illegal to
fire employees for certain reasons.
Individuals can influence their degree of job security by
increasing their skills through education and experience,
or by moving to a more favorable location.
The official unemployment rate and employee confidence indexes are good indicators of job security in
These statistics are closely watched by economists, government officials, and banks.
Unions also strongly influence job security.
Jobs that traditionally have a strong union presence such as many government jobs and jobs in education,
healthcare and law enforcement are considered very secure while many non-unionized private sector jobs are generally
believed to offer lower job security, although this varies by industry and country.
"Once in a while there is a body of work that reconceptualizes a topic of research.
This book reports and reviews such a body of work.
The result is a framing and hypotheses about reasoning that, in my judgment, fundamentally reconstructs the
psychology of inferential reasoning....
This book will be regarded as the major turning point in the field's development."
--James Greeno, Learning Research, and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh
"This deep and stimulating book, by a leading psychologist and a leading logician, is about the choice of
logical formalisms for representing actual reasoning.
There are two interlocking questions: what are the right formalisms to represent how people reason, and what forms
do the reasoners themselves bring to the world in order to reason about it?
The authors' answer to the first question, using closed-world reasoning, allows them to analyse the wide range
of strategies that people use for shaping their thinking.
For example the book uncovers important links between autism and nonmonotonic reasoning.
This may be the first book in cognitive science that logicians can learn some new logic from."
--Wilfrid Hodges, Queen Mary, University of London
Intellect is a term used in studies of the human mind, and refers to the ability of the mind to come to
correct conclusions about what is true or real, and about how to solve problems.
Historically the term comes from the Greek philosophical term nous, which was translated into Latin as
Focus on the future. Learn what you can from the past and quickly shift to applying those lessons to the future.
The past cannot be changed, so lingering on it may contribute to feelings of hopelessness. The future, however,
To help shift your focus to the future, understand a difficult past can make a successful future even more rewarding,
so overcoming adversity becomes a future goal(derived from the verb intelligere - to understand: from inter
between + legere to choose) and into French (and then English) as intelligence.
Discussion of the intellect can be divided into two broad areas.
In both of these areas, the terms "intellect" and "intelligence" have continued to be used as related words.
Intellect and Nous in philosophy.
In philosophy, especially in classical and medieval philosophy the intellect or nous is an important subject
connected to the question of how humans can know things.
Especially during late antiquity and the middle ages, the intellect was often proposed as a concept which could
reconcile philosophical and scientific understandings of nature with monotheistic religious understandings, by making
the intellect a link between each human soul, and the divine intellect (or intellects) of the cosmos itself.
(During the Latin Middle Ages a distinction developed whereby the term "intelligence" was typically used to
refer to the incorporeal beings which governed the celestial spheres in many of these accounts.)
Intellect and Intelligence in psychology.
In modern psychology and neuroscience, intelligence and intellect are used as terms describing mental
ability (or abilities) that allow people to understand.
A distinction is sometimes made whereby intellect is considered to be related to "facts" in contrast to intelligence
Intellect refers to the cognition and rational mental processes gained through external input rather than
A person who uses intelligence (thought and reason) and critical or analytical reasoning in either a
professional or a personal capacity is often referred to as an intellectual.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways including one's capacity for logic, abstract thought,
understanding, self-awareness, communication, learning, emotional knowledge, memory, planning, creativity and problem
It can be more generally described as the ability to perceive information, and retain it as knowledge to be applied
towards adaptive behaviors within an environment.
Intelligence is most widely studied in humans, but has also been observed in non-human animals and in
Artificial intelligence is intelligence in machines. (i.e., software)
Within the discipline of psychology, various approaches to human intelligence have been adopted.
The psychometric approach is especially familiar to the general public, as well as being the most researched
and by far the most widely used in practical settings.
1 a :a divine influence or action on a person believed to qualify him or her to receive and communicate
b :the action or power of moving the intellect or emotions
c :the act of influencing or suggesting opinions
2 :the act of drawing in; specifically :the drawing of air into the lungs
3 a :the quality or state of being inspired
b :something that is inspired a scheme that was pure inspiration
4 :an inspiring agent or influence
Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain behavior.
It represents the reasons for people's actions, desires, and needs.
Motivation can also be defined as one's direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a
behavior and vice versa.
A motive is what prompts the person to act in a certain way, or at least develop an inclination for specific
According to Maehr and Meyer, "Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, establishing and verifying
facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics,
and art and is normally considered to be a definitive characteristic of human nature.
The concept of reason is sometimes referred to as rationality and sometimes as discursive reason, in
opposition to intuitive reason.
Reason or "reasoning" is associated with thinking, cognition, and intellect.
Reason, like habit or intuition, is one of the ways by which thinking comes from one idea to a related idea.
For example, it is the means by which rational beings understand themselves to think about cause and effect, truth
and falsehood, and what is good or bad.
It is also closely identified with the ability to self-consciously change beliefs, attitudes, traditions, and
institutions, and therefore with the capacity for freedom and self-determination.
In contrast to reason as an abstract noun, a reason is a consideration which explains or justifies some event,
phenomenon or behaviour.
The field of logic studies ways in which human beings reason through argument.
Psychologists and cognitive scientists have attempted to study and explain how people reason, e.g. which
cognitive and neural processes are engaged, and how cultural factors affect the inferences that people draw.
The field of automated reasoning studies how reasoning may or may not be modeled computationally.
Animal psychology considers the question of whether animals other than humans can reason.
Daydreaming is a short-term detachment from one's immediate surroundings, during which a person's contact
with reality is blurred and partially substituted by a visionary fantasy, especially one of happy, pleasant thoughts,
hopes or ambitions, imagined as coming to pass, and experienced while awake.
There are many types of daydreams, and there is no consistent definition amongst psychologists, however the
characteristic that is common to all forms of daydreaming meets the criteria for mild dissociation.
Self-determination theory (SDT) is a macro theory of human motivation and personality that concerns people's
inherent growth tendencies and innate psychological needs.
It is concerned with the motivation behind choices people make without external influence and interference.
SDT focuses on the degree to which an individual’s behavior is self-motivated and self-determined.
In the 1970s, research on SDT evolved from studies comparing the intrinsic and extrinsic motives, and from
growing understanding of the dominant role intrinsic motivation played in an individual’s behavior but it was not
until the mid-1980s that SDT was formally introduced and accepted as a sound empirical theory.
Research applying SDT to different areas in social psychology has increased considerably since the 2000s.
Key studies that led to emergence of SDT included research on intrinsic motivation.
Intrinsic motivation refers to initiating an activity for its own sake because it is interesting and satisfying in
itself, as opposed to doing an activity to obtain an external goal (extrinsic motivation).
Different types of motivations have been described based on the degree they have been internalized.
Internalization refers to the active attempt to transform an extrinsic motive into personally endorsed values and
thus assimilate behavioural regulations that were originally external.
Edward L. Deci and Richard Ryan later expanded on the early work differentiating between intrinsic and
extrinsic motivation and proposed three main intrinsic needs involved in self-determination.
According to Deci and Ryan, the three psychological needs motivate the self to initiate behavior and specify
nutriments that are essential for psychological health and well-being of an individual.
These needs are said to be universal, innate and psychological and include the need for competence, autonomy, and
1. the ability to understand something; comprehension.
"foreign visitors with little understanding of English"
Understanding (also called intellection) is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical
object, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to deal
adequately with that object.
Understanding is a relation between the knower and an object of understanding.
Understanding implies abilities and dispositions with respect to an object of knowledge sufficient to support
An understanding is the limit of a conceptualization.
To understand something is to have conceptualized it to a given measure.