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Oral Polio Vaccine



Once Sabin’s oral vaccine finally became available in 1962, it quickly supplanted Salk’s injected vaccine because it was cheaper to produce and easier to administer.

OPV I recieved (age): May 1962 (11) . 1965 (14) . March 14, 1969 (18)

ConnecTra Society

The ConnecTra Society

Suite 318 425 Carrall Street
Vancouver, BC V6B 6E3

is a connecting agency, linking people with physical disabilities to activities and programs that will, over time, allow them to grow, gain confidence and become increasingly more active and involved in community life.

We aim to get all people with significant disabilities living in the Lower Mainland as socially active and involved as possible, through our Employment Support Project, workshops and other resources.

The society was formed in 1999 by Vancouver tetraplegic Sam Sullivan who was invested as a member of the Order of Canada in 2005 for his service to people with disabilities.

Join us at our next meeting
Our next community get-together is held at the Roundhouse on Tuesday, Nov. 21. Come along between 2pm and 4pm to meet service providers, interesting individuals and useful organizations. It's a relaxed, social afternoon with socializing and snacks - a real community event.

For general information about ConnecTra:

Program Coordinator
Stephen Street
604-688-6464 ext. 115

MSAA.org Improving Lives Today!

MSAA.org Improving Lives Today!

Mission Statement: The Multiple Sclerosis Association of America (MSAA) is a leading resource for the entire MS community, improving lives today through vital services and support.

MSAA is a national, nonprofit organization founded in 1970. Our organization is dedicated to improving lives today through ongoing support and direct services to individuals with MS, their families, and their care partners.

Overseeing MSAA's activities is a national Board of Directors comprised of accomplished professionals from across the country, volunteering their time for MSAA. Our Chief Medical Consultant reviews all of the organization's medical information and collaborates with MSAA's Healthcare Advisory Council. This council consists of medical professionals affiliated with top medical facilities and universities from around the country.

MSAA meets all Better Business Bureau (BBB) Wise Giving Alliance criteria and is in the exclusive group of national charities awarded the BBB Accredited Charity Seal. In addition, MSAA has achieved Gold Level status with GuideStar and is a member of America's Charities as well as a founding member of the Multiple Sclerosis Coalition. The MSC is a collaborative network of independent MS organizations whose mission is to increase opportunities for cooperation and provide greater opportunity to leverage the effective use of resources for the benefit of the MS community.

MSAA's free services help improve lives. Programs include a Helpline with trained specialists; award-winning educational videos and publications, including MSAA's magazine, The Motivator; safety and mobility equipment distribution; cooling accessories for heat-sensitive individuals; educational programs held across the country; MRI funding; and Lending Library among other services.

MSAA also offers tools to help manage the ever-changing course of multiple sclerosis. These tools are part of our Shared Management philosophy, involving education, training, use of technology, and tools to promote healthy outcomes. Shared Management is a concept whereby both the patient and healthcare providers work together to achieve the best possible health outcomes for the patient. MSAA's Shared-Management tools include our S.E.A.R.C.H.™ program to assist the MS community with learning about different treatment choices; a mobile phone app, My MS Manager™ (named one of the best multiple sclerosis iPhone & Android apps by Healthline.com); and a resource database, My MS Resource Locator®.

We thank you for your interest in MSAA! Please be sure to visit the many sections of our website to learn more about multiple sclerosis, see how our organization serves as a leading resource for the MS community, and find out how you can be a part of our important mission of Improving Lives Today! We offer several ways to support MSAA so please visit our Donate and Get Involved sections of the site. MSAA greatly appreciates all donations – please Donate Today and help us continue to provide free programs and services that Improve Lives Today! Thank you!

MSAA Improving Lives Today!

msif.org Atlas of MS

msif.org Atlas of MS

What is the Atlas for?

The updated Atlas of MS covers three key themes: the epidemiology of MS, the resources available to diagnose and treat the disease, and the support available to people with MS in 124 countries around the world.

The main aims of the Atlas are to:

What are its main findings?

The Atlas of MS 2013 shows:

How reliable are these statistics?

Data sources for the 2013 survey are more robust than in 2008. Ninety two countries (accounting for 79% of the world population) provided prevalence data in 2013. Forty seven of these countries (51%) provided a reference to at least one published peer-reviewed paper reporting the results of a local or national epidemiological study, while another 18 (20%) referred to a register (local or national) or study that was not published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Where possible the statistics submitted were checked against published data and, where there were discrepancies, we contacted the individual who submitted the data in order to reconcile the different figures.

The estimates for the epidemiology of MS that were provided by the countries participating in the Atlas survey were conservative, and are likely to have been substantially lower than the real figures in many countries with less developed healthcare systems, due to under-diagnosis and under-reporting.

Was it always known that children could get MS?

Although multiple sclerosis has been described and named as a neurological disease in adults for well over 100 years, it is only in the past few decades that it has been recognized that MS can occur in children too. More and more physicians consider this as a possible diagnosis when presented with symptoms consistent with central nervous system demyelination.

How much is known about MS in children?

Knowledge about the incidence, diagnosis and clinical management of pediatric MS has expanded significantly in the past 10-15 years as research and dissemination of data has increased among the medical community.

In 2007, an International Pediatric MS Study Group was founded with the support of several MS societies. The group has published consensus statements about the diagnosis and clinical care of children with MS and the most promising avenues of future research. Research into possible genetic and environmental factors that may cause MS is an area of special interest in this field as it could yield valuable information about the development of MS in adults.

What's the difference between relapsing and progressive MS?

Most people with MS (85%) are initially diagnosed with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS), where symptoms appear (relapse) over a short period of time, lasting between a few days and a few months. The symptoms then resolve (remission), sometimes for a long time.

In progressive MS, there is a gradual accumulation of disability, with or without superimposed relapses. Up to 80% of people with RRMS will eventually develop progressive MS (secondary progressive MS). A small percentage will develop progressive MS from the outset (primary progressive MS).

What is the connection between eye disease and MS?

Optic neuritis is a medical term that describes inflammation of the optic nerve. It may cause a complete or partial loss of vision. The cause is unknown, and believed to be multi-factorial. In some cases, optic neuritis is one of the first symptoms of MS, but not all people who have optic neuritis go on to develop MS. Optic neuritis is also a characteristic feature of Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), also known as Devic’s disease, which is an autoimmune condition that shares many of the clinical features of MS.

There is limited data on NMO, but it is more common in some regions. For that reason, the MS International Federation has been working with people with affected by MS and NMO in China to build a sustainable support structure in that country.

The Atlas says that, in some countries, three times as many women as men get MS and that Iran is one of these countries. Does having to cover and therefore have less contact with the sun and absorption of Vitamin D explain this statistic?

There is no simple answer. The reasons for the higher ratio of MS among women relative to men in certain parts of the world are most likely to be related to the complex interplay between genetics and the environment. While reduced sun exposure and consequent decreases in vitamin D levels might be a factor in some countries, substantial increases in the female to male ratio of MS have also been observed over the past few decades in countries where there is no tradition of women covering up.

What improvements for people with MS did the 2008 Atlas bring about?

The 2008 Atlas found that Ireland had the lowest number of neurologists per head in the European Union. MS Ireland used this to persuade the Irish government to increase this and, by 2013, the number of neurologists in Ireland had increased from 14 to 34.

We have also seen an increase in the number of countries in the Eastern Mediterranean with MS support groups, and in the availability of information for people with MS.

What is the MS International Federation going to do with the findings of this report?

We are encouraging all our members to use the report, and the more detailed data on this website, to call for improved diagnosis and treatment of MS and improved information and resources for people living with MS.

msif.org Multiple Sclerosis International Federation

msif.org Multiple Sclerosis International Federation

The MS International Federation is a unique global network of MS organisations, people affected by MS, volunteers and staff from around the world. Our movement is made up of 49 MS organisations with links to many others.

Our vision is a world without MS

Our mission is to inspire, mobilise and bring the world together to improve the quality of life of everybody affected by MS and to end MS forever.

Why does it matter?

Our Atlas of MS shows that around 2.3 million people worldwide are living with MS. Many of these people have little access to support.

For people with MS and their families, support and information are vital, as is the knowledge that scientists around the world are collaborating to develop better treatments for MS and eventually stop MS. We are helping to make this happen around the world – both directly and through our member organisations.

Multiple Sclerosis International Federation

Roundhouse Community Arts and Recreation Centre

Address: 181 Roundhouse Mews, Vancouver, BC V6Z 2W3
Phone: (604) 713-1800


In September 1996, the Roundhouse Advisory Committee, composed of neighbourhood representatives, heritage supporters, members of the arts community and Park Board staff, undertook a retreat to work through a vision for the Roundhouse. The following is the result of those discussions:

The overall mission is to celebrate diversity of people, values, ideas and activities.

This mission is made up of three key elements:

All of us who work or play or socialize at the Roundhouse will be active participants in an evolving project to find new and creative ways to integrate the arts, community culture and sports.

The Roundhouse is located in the centre of one of the largest urban experiments in history, transforming a few hundred acres of mostly vacant lots into one of North America's densest and most diverse urban sites. The Roundhouse will be an oasis in the centre of this dynamic mix, enabling people to use their creativity and energy (at whatever level) to rejuvenate themselves and to be better equipped to face a blizzard of challenges and opportunities around them.

The Roundhouse exists to identify and serve the needs of widely divergent communities. To do this the Roundhouse must reach out to the places and situations where those communities feel comfortable. These relationships will grow into Roundhouse programs through sponsorships, partnerships, and our own productions.

The mandate of the Roundhouse is twofold: to be a centre for community cultural development and a community source for recreational activities for all ages. We thrive on exploring issues, on taking risks, on being cutting edge. We strive to bring people together in new ways to explore what is important to them. Through stretching our boundaries and challenging our perceptions, we endeavour to build community and in our own way to make the world a better place. We invite you to join us.

UBC Hospital MS Clinic    2215 Wesbrook Mall    604-822-7131

UBC Hospital MS Clinic

Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health
2215 Wesbrook Mall
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3

Michelle Eisner 604-827-3111 Tony Traboulsee 604-822-0788

Telephone: 604-822-7131 Fax: 604-822-7362

The UBC Hospital MS Clinic is recognized internationally for its unique and innovative approaches taken by clinical personnel and associated researchers; it has treated and followed over 10,000 patients since inception.


The mandate of the UBC Hospital MS Clinic has been a multidisciplinary team approach with the goal being “to find the cause and cure of MS through patient management and education, research and teaching".


  1. Canadians have one of the highest rates of multiple sclerosis in the world.
  2. MS is the most common neurological disease affecting young adults in Canada.
  3. Every day, three more people in Canada are diagnosed with MS.
  4. Women are more than three times as likely to develop MS as men.
  5. MS can cause loss of balance, impaired speech, extreme fatigue, double vision and paralysis.
  6. MS was first identified and described by a French neurologist, Dr. Jean-Martin Charcot, in 1868.
  7. We do not know what causes MS but UBC/VCHRI researchers are dedicated to finding the answer.
  8. Over 5000 people visit the UBC Hospital MS Clinic annually.

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