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Introduction to Computing - David Evans

The first million years of hominid history produced tools to amplify, and later mechanize, our physical abilities to enable us to move faster, reach higher, and hit harder. We have developed tools that amplify physical force by the trillions and increase the speeds at which we can travel by the thousands.

Computing is the ultimate mental amplifier.

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Objective    10/26/2017

eCommerce resources.

e-commerce   10/26/2017

from Wikipedia

E-commerce is a transaction of buying or selling online. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web for at least one part of the transaction's life cycle although it may also use other technologies such as e-mail. Typical e-commerce transactions include the purchase of online books (such as Amazon) and music purchases (music download in the form of digital distribution such as iTunes Store), and to a less extent, customized/personalized online liquor store inventory services.[1]

E-commerce businesses may employ some or all of the followings:

. Online shopping web sites for retail sales direct to consumers
. Providing or participating in online marketplaces, which process third-party business-to-consumer or consumer-to-consumer sales
. Business-to-business buying and selling;
. Gathering and using demographic data through web contacts and social media
. Business-to-business (B2B) electronic data interchange
. Marketing to prospective and established customers by e-mail or fax (for example, with newsletters)
. Engaging in pretail for launching new products and services
. Online financial exchanges for currency exchanges or trading purposes.

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Comparison of shopping cart software   10/26/2017

from Wikipedia

The following is a comparison of the features of notable shopping cart software packages available. Some such shopping cart software is extensible through third-party software components and applications. As such, the features listed below may not encompass all possible features for a given software package. The software listed here is but a fraction of all such packages on the market.

List of online payment service providers   10/26/2017

from Wikipedia

The following is a list of notable online payment service providers:

Online shopping   10/26/2017

from Wikipedia

Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser. Consumers find a product of interest by visiting the website of the retailer directly or by searching among alternative vendors using a shopping search engine, which displays the same product's availability and pricing at different e-retailers. As of 2016, customers can shop online using a range of different computers and devices, including desktop computers, laptops, tablet computers and smartphones.

An online shop evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a regular "bricks-and-mortar" retailer or shopping center; the process is called business-to-consumer (B2C) online shopping. When an online store is set up to enable businesses to buy from another businesses, the process is called business-to-business (B2B) online shopping. A typical online store enables the customer to browse the firm's range of products and services, view photos or images of the products, along with information about the product specifications, features and prices.

Online stores typically enable shoppers to use "search" features to find specific models, brands or items. Online customers must have access to the Internet and a valid method of payment in order to complete a transaction, such as a credit card, an Interac-enabled debit card, or a service such as PayPal. For physical products (e.g., paperback books or clothes), the e-tailer ships the products to the customer; for digital products, such as digital audio files of songs or software, the e-tailer typically sends the file to the customer over the Internet. The largest of these online retailing corporations are Alibaba, Amazon.com, and eBay.[1]

Payment gateway   10/26/2017

from Wikipedia

A payment gateway is a merchant service provided by an e-commerce application service provider that authorizes credit card or direct payments processing for e-businesses, online retailers, bricks and clicks, or traditional brick and mortar.[1] The payment gateway may be provided by a bank to its customers, but can be provided by a specialised financial service provider as a separate service, such as a payment service provider.

A payment gateway facilitates a payment transaction by the transfer of information between a payment portal (such as a website, mobile phone or interactive voice response service) and the front end processor or acquiring bank.

Typical transaction processes

When a customer orders a product from a payment gateway-enabled merchant, the payment gateway performs a variety of tasks to process the transaction.[2]

A customer places an order on website by pressing the 'Submit Order' or equivalent button, or perhaps enters their card details using an automatic phone answering service.
. If the order is via a website, the customer's web browser encrypts the information to be sent between the browser and the merchant's webserver. In between other methods, this may be done via SSL (Secure Socket Layer) encryption. The payment gateway may allow transaction data to be sent directly from the customer's browser to the gateway, bypassing the merchant's systems. This reduces the merchant's Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) compliance obligations without redirecting the customer away from the website.
. The merchant then forwards the transaction details to their payment gateway. This is another (SSL) encrypted connection to the payment server hosted by the payment gateway.
. The payment gateway converts the message from XML to ISO 8583 or a variant message format (format understood by EFT Switches) and then forwards the transaction information to the payment processor used by the merchant's acquiring bank.
. The payment processor forwards the transaction information to the card association (I.e.: Visa/MasterCard/American Express). If an American Express or Discover Card was used, then the card association also acts as the issuing bank and directly provides a response of approved or declined to the payment gateway. Otherwise [e.g.: MasterCard or Visa card was used], the card association routes the transaction to the correct card issuing bank.
. The credit card issuing bank receives the authorization request, verifies the credit or debit available and then sends a response back to the processor (via the same process as the request for authorization) with a response code (I.e.:: approved, denied). In addition to communicating the fate of the authorization request, the response code is also used to define the reason why the transaction failed (I.e.: insufficient funds, or bank link not available). Meanwhile, the credit card issuer holds an authorization associated with that merchant and consumer for the approved amount. This can impact the consumer's ability to spend further ( because it reduces the line of credit available or it puts a hold on a portion of the funds in a debit account).
. The processor forwards the authorization response to the payment gateway
. The payment gateway receives the response, and forwards it on to the website (or whatever interface was used to process the payment) where it is interpreted as a relevant response then relayed back to the merchant and cardholder. This is known as the Authorization or "Auth"
. The entire process typically takes 2–3 seconds.[3]
. The merchant then fulfills the order and the above process can be repeated but this time to "Clear" the authorization by consummating the transaction. Typically, the "Clear" is initiated only after the merchant has fulfilled the transaction (I.e.: shipped the order). This results in the issuing bank 'clearing' the 'auth' (i.e.: moves auth-hold to a debit) and prepares them to settle with the merchant acquiring bank.
. The merchant submits all their approved authorizations, in a "batch" (end of the day), to their acquiring bank for settlement via its processor. This typically reduces or "Clears" the corresponding "Auth" if it has not been explicitly "Cleared".
. The acquiring bank makes the batch settlement request of the credit card issuer.
. The credit card issuer makes a settlement payment to the acquiring bank (the next day in most cases)
. The acquiring bank subsequently deposits the total of the approved funds into the merchant's nominated account (the same day or next day). This could be an account with the acquiring bank if the merchant does their banking with the same bank, or an account with another bank.
. The entire process from authorization to settlement to funding typically takes 3 days.

Many payment gateways also provide tools to automatically screen orders for fraud and calculate tax in real time prior to the authorization request being sent to the processor. Tools to detect fraud include geolocation, velocity pattern analysis, OFAC list lookups, 'black-list' lookups, delivery address verification, computer finger printing technology, identity morphing detection, and basic AVS checks.

PaymentSphere   10/26/2017

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Shopping cart software   10/26/2017

from Wikipedia

In online marketing, a shopping cart is a piece of e-commerce software on a web server that allows visitors to an Internet site to select items for eventual purchase, analogous to the American English term "shopping cart."[1] In British English, it is generally known as a shopping basket, almost exclusively shortened on websites to "basket."[2]

The software allows online shopping customers to accumulate a list of items for purchase, described metaphorically as “placing items in the shopping cart” or “add to cart.” Upon checkout, the software typically calculates a total for the order, including shipping and handling (i.e., postage and packing) charges and the associated taxes, as applicable.

History

The development of web shop systems took place right after the Internet became a mass medium. This was a result of the launch of the browser Mosaic in 1993 and Netscape in 1994. It created an environment in which web shops were possible. The Internet therefore acted as the key infrastructure developments that contributed to the rapid diffusion of the e-commerce, a subset of e-business that describes all computer-aided business transactions. In 1998 a total of 11 e-business models were observed, one of which was the e-shop business model for a B2C (business-to-consumer) business—also called the “online shop” The two terms “online shop” and “electronic” or “e-shop” are used interchangeably. The term “online shopping” was invented much earlier in 1984; for example TV shopping often used the term before the popularity of the online method. Today the term primarily refers to the B2C transactional business model. In order to enable “online shopping” a software system is needed. Since “online shopping”, in the context of the B2C business model, became broadly available to the end consumer, internet-based “online shops” evolved.

For online shopping systems in this context the narrower term “web shop” is used. No term has become solidly established for a B2C e-commerce software system. Whereas in the German-speaking region terms such as “web shop software” or “online shop software” are used, the term “shopping cart software” has become established in the United States.[3]

Worldpay (formerly RBS WorldPay)   10/26/2017

from Wikipedia    Worldpay (formerly RBS WorldPay)

Worldpay (formerly RBS WorldPay) is a payment processing company. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.

History

Worldpay started as an electronic payment system called Streamline which was first released by CentreFile, a wholly owned subsidiary of National Westminster Bank, in 1989.[3]

In 1995 the Streamline system was reabsorbed into the bank when the rest of CentreFile was sold to Ceridian. NatWest was acquired in 2002 by Royal Bank of Scotland Group (RBS)[4] which renamed the business RBS WorldPay. RBS expanded the business significantly by acquiring and merging a number of payment solutions companies from different countries. Over the next five years it was combined with seven leading retail payment solutions brands: Streamline, Streamline International, PaymentTrust, Netherlands based Bibit, RiskGuardian and US-based Lynk.[5]

As a condition in the European Commission's clearance in December 2009 of state aid to RBS, Worldpay was to be sold as part of a plan to divest selected businesses from the group. On 6 August 2010, Advent International and Bain Capital agreed to acquire Worldpay for £2.025bn including a £200m contingent consideration. The RBS Group retained a 20% stake in the newly independent business[6] with Advent International and Bain Capital owning 40% each. The sale completed on 1 December 2010. RBS WorldPay was renamed Worldpay as part of the deal.[7]

On 21 December 2010, almost immediately following on from the sale, Worldpay acquired Cardsave, one of the UK’s leading independent sales organisations distributing credit and debit card processing services to small retailers.[8] In May 2011 Worldpay acquired Envoy Services Limited, a leading provider of alternative payment solutions to eCommerce merchants worldwide, for an undisclosed amount.[9]

In June 2013, Worldpay launched Worldpay Zinc, a mobile card processing terminal which connects to smart phones.[10] In September 2013 Worldpay revealed it had acquired US payment processing company Century Payments.[11] Then in November 2013, Royal Bank of Scotland said it had sold its remaining stake of about 20 percent in Worldpay to the payment processing firm’s majority shareholders, private equity firms Advent International and Bain Capital.[12] The company listed on the London Stock Exchange through an initial public offering (IPO) in December 1215.[13]

In 2014, Worldpay announced a definitive agreement to acquire SecureNet Payment Systems[14] from private equity firm Sterling Partners. The acquisition was completed in December of that year.[15]

In July 2017, Vantiv announced its intention to acquire Worldpay for $10.4 billion.[16][17][18][19] Subsequent announcements have indicated that the combined entity will be named "Worldpay," headquartered and listed in the United States, but internal operations will be based in the U.K.[20] In August 2017, Vantiv announced that it would be going global, with Worldpay.[21]

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