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A programming language is a formal computer language or constructed language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs to control the behavior of a machine or to express algorithms.
The earliest known programmable machine preceded the invention of the digital computer and is the automatic flute player described in the 9th century by the brothers Musa in Baghdad, at the time a major centre of knowledge. From the early 1800s, "programs" were used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms and player pianos.
Thousands of different programming languages have been created, mainly in the computer field, and many more still are being created every year. Many programming languages require computation to be specified in an imperative form (i.e., as a sequence of operations to perform), while other languages use other forms of program specification such as the declarative form (i.e. the desired result is specified, not how to achieve it).
The description of a programming language is usually split into the two components of syntax (form) and semantics (meaning). Some languages are defined by a specification document (for example, the C programming language is specified by an ISO Standard), while other languages (such as Perl) have a dominant implementation that is treated as a reference. Some languages have both, with the basic language defined by a standard and extensions taken from the dominant implementation being common.
An assembly language (or assembler language) is a low-level programming language for a computer, or other programmable device, in which there is a very strong (generally one-to-one) correspondence between the language and the architecture's machine code instructions. Each assembly language is specific to a particular computer architecture, in contrast to most high-level programming languages, which are generally portable across multiple architectures, but require interpreting or compiling.
Assembly language may also be called assembly, assembler, ASM, symbolic machine code or assembly program.
Assembly language is converted into executable machine code by a utility program referred to as an assembler; the conversion process is referred to as assembly, or assembling the source code. Assembly time is the computational step where an assembler is run.
Assembly language uses a mnemonic to represent each low-level machine instruction or operation. Typical operations require one or more operands in order to form a complete instruction, and most assemblers can therefore take labels, symbols and expressions as operands to represent addresses and other constants, freeing the programmer from tedious manual calculations. Many assemblers offer additional mechanisms to facilitate program development, to control the assembly process, and to aid debugging.
C Programming Language - Dennis Ritchie
C is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
By design, C provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions, and therefore it has found lasting use in applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language, including operating systems, as well as various application software for computers ranging from supercomputers to embedded systems.
C was originally developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at AT&T Bell Labs, and used to re-implement the Unix operating system.
It has since become one of the most widely used programming languages of all time, with C compilers from various vendors available for the majority of existing computer architectures and operating systems.
C has been standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) since 1989 (see ANSI C) and subsequently by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Java a Beginners Guide.pdf
from Wikipedia Java.net Java.com Wikibooks
Java is a general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere" (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture.
As of 2016, Java is one of the most popular programming languages in use, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers. Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them.
The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by Sun under proprietary licences. As of May 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process, Sun relicensed most of its Java technologies under the GNU General Public License. Others have also developed alternative implementations of these Sun technologies, such as the GNU Compiler for Java (bytecode compiler), GNU Classpath (standard libraries), and IcedTea-Web (browser plugin for applets).
The latest version is Java 8, which is the only version currently supported for free by Oracle, although earlier versions are supported both by Oracle and other companies on a commercial basis.
Fortran 95 Manual
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translating System) is a general-purpose, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
Originally developed by IBM in the 1950s for scientific and engineering applications, Fortran came to dominate this area of programming early on and has been in continuous use for over half a century in computationally intensive areas such as numerical weather prediction, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, computational physics and computational chemistry. It is a popular language for high-performance computing and is used for programs that benchmark and rank the world's fastest supercomputers.
Fortran encompasses a lineage of versions, each of which evolved to add extensions to the language while usually retaining compatibility with prior versions. Successive versions have added support for structured programming and processing of character-based data (FORTRAN 77), array programming, modular programming and generic programming (Fortran 90), high performance Fortran (Fortran 95), object-oriented programming (Fortran 2003) and concurrent programming (Fortran 2008).
The POSTSCRIPT page description language provides a device independent standard for representing the printed page. This book is designed to be a companion piece to the POSTSCRIPT Language Reference Manual. It presents illustrative material to aid in understanding the POSTSCRIPT language.
The tutorial information presented here has been deliberately separated from the reference manual to help ensure that the defining document offers a precise, unambiguous definition of the language and associated graphics imaging model. In all cases, when questions of definition or precise specification are raised, the POSTSCRIPT Language Reference Manual is the final word.
This book actually contains two documents: the POSTSCRIPT Language Tutorial and the POSTSCRIPT Language Cookbook. The tutorial provides an easy, informal introduction to the POSTSCRIPT language and its graphics primitives. The tutorialâ€™s style and level of presentation is aimed at programmers who wish to design and implement applications, such as word processing packages, graphics illustrators, and CAD/CAM drawing systems. It is interactively oriented, and written with the assumption that you, the reader, already know how to program. You are encouraged to try variations of the examples presented in the tutorial on a POSTSCRIPT printer as you work your way through the book.
The cookbook is, as its name suggests, a collection of programs that are offered as examples of POSTSCRIPT usage. These samples have been chosen both as illustrations of the functional range of POSTSCRIPT and as useful ingredients for inclusion in application packages that you design. The cookbook samples demonstrate techniques for rendering quality graphics, achieving effective typography with digital fonts, and maintaining true device independence. Again, you are encouraged to experiment with variations of these samples on a POSTSCRIPT printer as you develop your own applications.
The principal authors of this material are Linda Gass and John Deubert. The final organization and the majority of the material for the POSTSCRIPT Language Tutorial is due to John Deubert. Ed Taft reviewed and proofread the material during the later stages of its production. Linda Gass designed and developed the POSTSCRIPT Language Cookbook and she is the principal author of both the examples and the explanatory text.
The seminal idea of the cookbook is due to Doug Brotz and several of the illustrations in the cookbook are due to John Warnock. Andy Shore proofread the text and POSTSCRIPT sample programs. The book design was specified by Bob Ishi and was implemented by Andy Shore and Brian Reid. The index was compiled by Steven Sorensen.
The art of printing is rich in tradition, and the technology for producing the printed page has evolved over centuries. We at Adobe Systems are pleased to offer POSTSCRIPT as a tool for printing in the electronic age. I believe that this tutorial material will significantly enhance your ability to explore this exciting technology and help you enjoy the process of discovering the world of electronic printing.
Postscript Language Reference Manual
PostScript (PS) is a computer language for creating vector graphics. It is a dynamically typed, concatenative programming language and was created by John Warnock, Charles Geschke, Doug Brotz, Ed Taft and Bill Paxton in 1982. It is used as a page description language in the electronic and desktop publishing areas.
PostScript is a Turing-complete programming language, belonging to the concatenative group. Typically, PostScript programs are not produced by humans, but by other programs. However, it is possible to write computer programs in PostScript just like any other programming language.
PostScript is an interpreted, stack-based language similar to Forth but with strong dynamic typing, data structures inspired by those found in Lisp, scoped memory and, since language level 2, garbage collection. The language syntax uses reverse Polish notation, which makes the order of operations unambiguous, but reading a program requires some practice, because one has to keep the layout of the stack in mind.
Most operators (what other languages term functions) take their arguments from the stack, and place their results onto the stack. Literals (for example, numbers) have the effect of placing a copy of themselves on the stack. Sophisticated data structures can be built on the array and dictionary types, but cannot be declared to the type system, which sees them all only as arrays and dictionaries, so any further typing discipline to be applied to such user-defined "types" is left to the code that implements them.
The character "%" is used to introduce comments in PostScript programs. As a general convention, every PostScript program should start with the characters "%!PS" as an interpreter directive so that all devices will properly interpret it as PostScript.
Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its COM programming model first released in 1991 and declared legacy in 2008. Microsoft intended Visual Basic to be relatively easy to learn and use.
Visual Basic was derived from BASIC and enables the rapid application development (RAD) of graphical user interface (GUI) applications, access to databases using Data Access Objects, Remote Data Objects, or ActiveX Data Objects, and creation of ActiveX controls and objects.
A programmer can create an application using the components provided by the Visual Basic program itself. Over time the community of programmers developed third party components. Programs written in Visual Basic can also use the Windows API, which requires external function declarations.
The final release was version 6 in 1998 (now known simply as Visual Basic). On April 8, 2008 Microsoft stopped supporting Visual Basic 6.0 IDE. The Microsoft Visual Basic team still maintains compatibility for Visual Basic 6.0 applications on Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008 including R2, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012 and Windows 10 through its "It Just Works" program. In 2014 there were tens of thousands of developers who still prefer Visual Basic 6.0 over Visual Basic .NET. In 2014 some developers lobbied for a new version of Visual Basic 6.0. A dialect of Visual Basic, Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), is used as a macro or scripting language within several Microsoft applications, including Microsoft Office.
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