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Objective   2/14/2016

All Networking

Networking and The Internet   12/15/2015

Computers have been used to coordinate information between multiple locations since the 1950s.

The U.S. military's SAGE system was the first large-scale example of such a system, which led to a number of special-purpose commercial systems such as Sabre.

In the 1970s, computer engineers at research institutions throughout the United States began to link their computers together using telecommunications technology.

The effort was funded by ARPA (now DARPA), and the computer network that resulted was called the ARPANET.

The technologies that made the Arpanet possible spread and evolved.

In time, the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known as the Internet.

The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the computer.

Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network, such as peripheral devices, stored information, and the like, as extensions of the resources of an individual computer.

Initially these facilities were available primarily to people working in high-tech environments, but in the 1990s the spread of applications like e-mail and the Web, combined with the development of cheap, fast networking technologies like Ethernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous.

In fact, the number of computers that are networked is growing phenomenally.

A very large proportion of personal computers regularly connect to the Internet to communicate and receive information.

"Wireless" networking, often utilizing mobile phone networks, has meant networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous even in mobile computing environments.

Ethernet   3/15/2016


Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LANs) and metropolitan area networks (MANs).

It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3, and has since been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances.

Over time, Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as token ring, FDDI and ARCNET.

The original 10BASE5 Ethernet uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, while the newer Ethernet variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches.

Over the course of its history, Ethernet data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 megabits per second (Mbit/s) to the latest 100 gigabits per second (Gbit/s), with 400 Gbit/s expected by late 2017.

The Ethernet standards comprise several wiring and signaling variants of the OSI physical layer in use with Ethernet.

Systems communicating over Ethernet divide a stream of data into shorter pieces called frames.

Each frame contains source and destination addresses, and error-checking data so that damaged frames can be detected and discarded; most often, higher-layer protocols trigger retransmission of lost frames.

As per the OSI model, Ethernet provides services up to and including the data link layer.

Since its commercial release, Ethernet has retained a good degree of backward compatibility.

Features such as the 48-bit MAC address and Ethernet frame format have influenced other networking protocols.

The primary alternative for some uses of contemporary LANs is Wi-Fi, a wireless protocol standardized as IEEE 802.11.

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority IANA   3/19/2016

Wikipedia   Internet Assigned Numbers Authority IANA

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a department of ICANN, a nonprofit private American corporation that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and numbers.

Prior to the establishment of ICANN primarily for this purpose in 1998, IANA was administered principally by Jon Postel at the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) of the University of Southern California (USC) situated at Marina Del Rey (Los Angeles), under a contract USC/ISI had with the United States Department of Defense, until ICANN was created to assume the responsibility under a United States Department of Commerce contract.

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICANN   3/19/2016


The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICANN is a nonprofit organization that is responsible for coordinating the maintenance and methodologies of several databases, with unique identifiers, related to the namespaces of the Internet - and thereby, ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.

Most visibly, much of its work has concerned the Internet's global Domain Name System, including policy development for internationalization of the DNS system, introduction of new generic top-level domains (TLDs), and the operation of root name servers.

The numbering facilities ICANN manages include the Internet Protocol address spaces for IPv4 and IPv6, and assignment of address blocks to regional Internet registries.

ICANN also maintains registries of Internet protocol identifiers.

ICANN performs the actual technical maintenance work of the central Internet address pools and DNS Root registries pursuant to the IANA function contract.

ICANN's primary principles of operation have been described as helping preserve the operational stability of the Internet; to promote competition; to achieve broad representation of the global Internet community; and to develop policies appropriate to its mission through bottom-up, consensus-based processes.

ICANN was created on September 18, 1998, and incorporated on September 30, 1998 in the State of California.

It is headquartered in the Playa Vista section of Los Angeles, California.

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)   3/21/2016

Wikipedia   The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).

It is an open standards organization, with no formal membership or membership requirements.

All participants and managers are volunteers, though their work is usually funded by their employers or sponsors.

The IETF started out as an activity supported by the U.S. federal government, but since 1993 it has operated as a standards development function under the auspices of the Internet Society, an international membership-based non-profit organization.

Internet service provider (ISP)   3/19/2016


An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, the Internet.

Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise privately owned.

Internet services typically provided by ISPs include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, and colocation.

Access providers ISP

ISPs provide Internet access, employing a range of technologies to connect users to their network.

Available technologies have ranged from computer modems with acoustic couplers to telephone lines, to television cable (CATV), wireless Ethernet (wi-fi), and fiber optics.

For users and small businesses, traditional options include copper wires to provide dial-up, DSL, typically asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), cable modem or Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) (typically basic rate interface).

Using fiber-optics to end users is called Fiber To The Home or similar names.

For customers with more demanding requirements (such as medium-to-large businesses, or other ISPs) can use higher-speed DSL (such as single-pair high-speed digital subscriber line), Ethernet, metropolitan Ethernet, gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN Primary Rate Interface, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) and synchronous optical networking (SONET).

Wireless access is another option, including satellite Internet access.

List of TCP and UDP port numbers   3/16/2016


This is a list of Internet socket port numbers used by protocols of the transport layer of the Internet Protocol Suite for the establishment of host-to-host connectivity.

Originally, port numbers were used by the Network Control Program (NCP) in the ARPANET for which two ports were required for half-duplex transmission.

Later, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) needed only one port for full-duplex, bidirectional traffic.

The even-numbered ports were not used, and this resulted in some even numbers in the well-known port number range being unassigned.

The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) and the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) also use port numbers.

They usually use port numbers that match the services of the corresponding TCP or UDP implementation, if they exist.

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is responsible for maintaining the official assignments of port numbers for specific uses.

However, many unofficial uses of both well-known and registered port numbers occur in practice.

Local area network LAN   3/15/2016


A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, or office building.

A local area network is contrasted in principle to a wide area network (WAN), which covers a larger geographic distance and may involve leased telecommunication circuits, while the media for LANs are locally managed.

Ethernet over twisted pair cabling and Wi-Fi are the two most common transmission technologies in use for local area networks.

Historical technologies include ARCNET, Token Ring, and AppleTalk.

MAC address   3/16/2016


A media access control address (MAC address), also called physical address, is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment.

MAC addresses are used as a network address for most IEEE 802 network technologies, including Ethernet and WiFi.

Logically, MAC addresses are used in the media access control protocol sublayer of the OSI reference model.

MAC addresses are most often assigned by the manufacturer of a network interface controller (NIC) and are stored in its hardware, such as the card's read-only memory or some other firmware mechanism.

If assigned by the manufacturer, a MAC address usually encodes the manufacturer's registered identification number and may be referred to as the burned-in address (BIA).

It may also be known as an Ethernet hardware address (EHA), hardware address or physical address.

This can be contrasted to a programmed address, where the host device issues commands to the NIC to use an arbitrary address.

A network node may have multiple NICs and each NIC must have a unique MAC address.

MAC addresses are formed according to the rules of one of three numbering name spaces managed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE): MAC-48, EUI-48, and EUI-64.

The IEEE claims trademarks on the names EUI-48[1] and EUI-64,[2] in which EUI is an abbreviation for Extended Unique Identifier.

Port (computer networking)   3/16/2016


In computer networking, a port is an endpoint of communication in an operating system.

While the term is also used for hardware devices, in software it is a logical construct that identifies a specific process or a type of service.

A port is always associated with an IP address of a host and the protocol type of the communication, and thus completes the destination or origination address of a communications session.

A port is identified for each address and protocol by a 16-bit number, commonly known as the port number.

Specific port numbers are often used to identify specific services.

Of the thousands of enumerated ports, 1024 well-known port numbers are reserved by convention to identify specific service types on a host.

The protocols that primarily use ports are the transport layer protocols, such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) of the Internet protocol suite.

Ports are unnecessary on direct point-to-point links when the computers at each end can only run one program at a time.

Ports became necessary after computers became capable of executing more than one program at a time and were connected to modern packet-switched networks.

In the client–server model of application architecture, the ports that network clients connect to for service initiation provide a multiplexing service.

After initial communication binds to the well-known port number, this port is freed by switching each instance of service requests to a dedicated, connection-specific port number, so that additional clients can be serviced.

TCP/IP network (Internet protocol suite)   3/20/2016


RFC 1180 A TCP/IP Tutorial - from the Internet Engineering Task Force (January 1991)

The Internet protocol suite is the computer networking model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.

It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because its most important protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP) were the first networking protocols defined in this standard.

It is occasionally known as the model (Department of Defense), because the development of the networking model was funded by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense.

TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination.

This functionality is organized into four abstraction layers which are used to sort all related protocols according to the scope of networking involved.

From lowest to highest, the layers are the link layer, containing communication methods for data that remains within a single network segment (link); the internet layer, connecting independent networks, thus establishing internetworking; the transport layer handling host-to-host communication; and the application layer, which provides process-to-process data exchange for applications.

The TCP/IP model and many of its protocols are maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

The Internet Society (ISOC)   3/21/2016

Wikipedia   The Internet Society (ISOC)

is an international, non-profit organization founded in 1992 to provide leadership in Internet-related standards, education, access, and policy.

It states that its mission is "to promote the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people throughout the world".

The Internet Society has its headquarters in Reston, Virginia, United States, (near Washington, D.C.), and offices in Geneva, Switzerland.

It has a membership base of more than 140 organizations and more than 80,000 individual members.

Members also form "chapters" based on either common geographical location or special interests.

There are over 110 chapters around the world.

Wide area network WAN   3/15/2016


A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunications network or computer network that extends over a large geographical distance.

Wide area networks are often established with leased telecommunication circuits.

Business, education and government entities use wide area networks to relay data among staff, students, clients, buyers, and suppliers from various geographical locations.

In essence, this mode of telecommunication allows a business to effectively carry out its daily function regardless of location.

The Internet may be considered a WAN.

Related terms for other types of networks are personal area networks (PANs), local area networks (LANs), campus area networks (CANs), or metropolitan area networks (MANs) which are usually limited to a room, building, campus or specific metropolitan area respectively.

Wi-Fi or WiFi   3/15/2016

Wikipedia   The Wi-Fi Alliance

Wi-Fi or WiFi is a local area wireless computer networking technology that allows electronic devices to connect to the network, mainly using the 2.4 gigahertz (12 cm) UHF and 5 gigahertz (6 cm) SHF ISM radio bands.

The Wi-Fi Alliance defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network" (WLAN) product based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards.

However, the term "Wi-Fi" is used in general English as a synonym for "WLAN" since most modern WLANs are based on these standards.

"Wi-Fi" is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance.

The "Wi-Fi Certified" trademark can only be used by Wi-Fi products that successfully complete Wi-Fi Alliance interoperability certification testing.

Many devices can use Wi-Fi, e.g. personal computers, video-game consoles, smartphones, digital cameras, tablet computers and digital audio players.

These can connect to a network resource such as the Internet via a wireless network access point.

Such an access point (or hotspot) has a range of about 20 meters (66 feet) indoors and a greater range outdoors.

Hotspot coverage can be as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or as large as many square kilometres achieved by using multiple overlapping access points.

Wi-Fi is less secure than wired connections, such as Ethernet, precisely because an intruder does not need a physical connection.

Web pages that use TLS are secure, but unencrypted internet access can easily be detected by intruders.

Because of this, Wi-Fi has adopted various encryption technologies.

The early encryption WEP proved easy to break.

Higher quality protocols (WPA, WPA2) were added later.

An optional feature added in 2007, called Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS), had a serious flaw that allowed an attacker to recover the router's password.

The Wi-Fi Alliance has since updated its test plan and certification program to ensure all newly certified devices resist attacks.

Where is geolocation of an IP Address?   3/20/2016

Where is geolocation of an IP Address?

What is an IP Address?

Internet Protocol Address (or IP Address) is an unique address that computing devices such as personal computers, tablets, and smartphones use to identify itself and communicate with other devices in the IP network.

Any device connected to the IP network must have an unique IP address within the network.

An IP address is analogous to a street address or telephone number in that it is used to uniquely identify an entity.

Dotted Decimals

The traditional IP Addresses (known as IPv4) uses a 32-bit number to represent an IP address, and it defines both network and host address.

A 32-bit number is capable of providing roughly 4 billion unique numbers, and hence IPv4 addresses running out as more devices are connected to the IP network.

A new version of the IP protocol (IPv6) has been invented to offer virtually limitless number of unique addresses.

An IP address is written in "dotted decimal" notation, which is 4 sets of numbers separated by period each set representing 8-bit number ranging from (0-255).

An example of IPv4 address is, which is the IP address previously assigned to

An IPv4 address is divided into two parts: network and host address.

The network address determines how many of the 32 bits are used for the network address, and remaining bits for the host address.

The host address can further divided into subnetwork and host number.

Class A, B, C and CIDR networks

Traditionally IP network is classified as A, B or C network. The computers identified the class by the first 3 bits (A=000, B=100, C=110), while humans identify the class by first octet(8-bit) number. With scarcity of IP addresses, the class-based system has been replaced by Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) to more efficiently allocate IP addresses.

Class Network Address Number of Hosts Netmask

CIDR /4 240,435,456
CIDR /5 134,217,728
CIDR /6 67,108,864
CIDR /7 33,554,432
A /8 (1-126) 16,777,216
CIDR /9 8,388,608
CIDR /10 4,194,304
CIDR /11 2,097,152
CIDR /12 1,048,576
CIDR /13 524,288
CIDR /14 262,144
CIDR /15 131,072
B /16 (128-191) 65,534
CIDR /17 32,768
CIDR /18 16,384
CIDR /19 8,192
CIDR /20 4,096
CIDR /21 2,048
CIDR /22 1,024
CIDR /23 512
C /24 (192-223) 256
CIDR /25 128
CIDR /26 64
CIDR /27 32
CIDR /28 16
CIDR /29 8
CIDR /30 4

Note: (1) 127 Network Address reserved for loopback test. (2) Class D (224-247, Multicast) and Class E (248-255, Experimental) are not intended to be used in public operation.

Public and Private IP Addresses

In order to maintain uniqueness within global namespace, the IP addresses are publicly registered with the Network Information Center (NIC) to avoid address conflicts.

Devices that need to be publicly identified such as web or mail servers must have a globally unique IP address, and they are assigned a public IP address.

Devices that do not require public access may be assigned a private IP address, and make it uniquely identifiable within one organization.

For example, a network printer may be assigned a private IP address to prevent the world from printing from it.

To allow organizations to freely assign private IP addresses, the NIC has reserved certain address blocks for rivate use.

A private network is a network that uses RFC 1918 IP address space.

The following IP blocks are reserved for private IP addresses.

Class Starting IP Address Ending IP Address

In addition to above classful private addresses, through addresses are reserved for Zeroconf (or APIPA, Automatic Private IP Addressing) to automatically create the usable IP network without configuration.

What is loopback IP address?

The loopback IP address is the address used to access itself.

The IPv4 designated as the loopback address with the subnet mask.

A loopback interface is also known as a virtual IP, which does not associate with hardware interface.

On Linux systems, the loopback interface is commonly called lo or lo0.

The corresponding hostname for this interface is called localhost.

The loopback address is used to test network software without physically installing a Network Interface Card (NIC), and without having to physically connect the machine to a TCP/IP network.

A good example of this is to access the web server running on itself by using or http://localhost.


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This page was last updated April 30th, 2017 by kim

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