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Video editing is the manipulation and arrangement of video shots. Video editing is used to structure and present all video information, including films and television shows, video advertisements and video essays. Video editing has been dramatically democratized in recent years by editing software available for personal computers.
Types of editing
Once the province of expensive machines called video editors, video editing software is now available for personal computers and workstations. Video editing includes cutting segments (trimming), re-sequencing clips, and adding transitions and other Special Effects.
. Linear video editing, using video tape and is edited in a very linear way. Several video clips from different tapes are recorded to one single tape in the order that they will appear.
. Non-linear editing system (NLE), This is edited on computers with specialised software. These are non destructive to the video being edited and use programs such as Adobe Premiere Pro, Final Cut Pro and Avid.
. Offline editing is the process in which raw footage is copied from an original source, without affecting the original film stock or video tape. Once the editing has been completely edited, the original media is then re-assembled in the online editing stage.
. Online editing is the process of reassembling the edit to full resolution video after an offline edit has been performed and is done in the final stage of a video production.
. Vision mixing, when working within live television and video production environments. A vision mixer is used to cut live feed coming from several cameras in real time.
Video editing is the process of editing segments of motion video production footage, special effects and sound recordings in the post-production process. Motion picture film editing is a predecessor to video editing and, in several ways, video editing simulates motion picture film editing, in theory and the use of linear video editing and video editing software on non-linear editing systems (NLE). Using video, a director can communicate non-fictional and fictional events. The goals of editing is to manipulate these events to bring the communication closer to the original goal or target. It is a visual art.
Early 1950's video tape recorders (VTR) were so expensive, and the quality degradation caused by copying was so great, that 2 inch Quadruplex videotape was edited by visualizing the recorded track with ferrofluid and cutting with a razor blade or guillotine cutter and splicing with video tape. The two pieces of tape to be joined were painted with a solution of extremely fine iron filings suspended in carbon tetrachloride, a toxic and carcinogenic compound. This "developed" the magnetic tracks, making them visible when viewed through a microscope so that they could be aligned in a splicer designed for this task.
Improvements in quality and economy, and the invention of the flying erase-head, allowed new video and audio material to be recorded over the material already recorded on an existing magnetic tape and was introduced into the linear editing technique. If a scene closer to the beginning of the video tape needed to be changed in length, all later scenes would need to be recorded onto the video tape again in sequence. In addition, sources could be played back simultaneously through a vision mixer (video switcher) to create more complex transitions between scenes. A popular 1970-80s system for doing that was the U-matic equipment (named for the U-shaped tape path). That system used two tape players and one tape recorder, and edits were done by automatically having the machines back up, then speed up together in synchrony, so the edit didn't roll or glitch. Later, 1980-90's came the smaller beta equipment (named for the B-shaped tape path), and more complex controllers, some of which did the synchronizing electronically.
There was a transitional analog period using multiple source videocassette recorder (VCR)s with the EditDroid using LaserDisc players, but modern NLE systems edit video digitally captured onto a hard drive from an analog video or digital video source. Content is ingested and recorded natively with the appropriate codec that the video editing software uses to process captured footage. High-definition video is becoming more popular and can be readily edited using the same video editing software along with related motion graphics programs. Video clips are arranged on a timeline, music tracks, titles, digital on-screen graphics are added, special effects can be created, and the finished program is "rendered" into a finished video. The video may then be distributed in a variety of ways including DVD, web streaming, QuickTime Movies, iPod, CD-ROM, or video tape.
Video editing software is an application program which handles the post-production video editing of digital video sequences on a computer non-linear editing system (NLE). It has replaced traditional flatbed celluloid film editing tools and analogue video tape-to-tape online editing machines.
NLE software is typically based on a timeline interface paradigm where sections of moving image video recordings, known as clips, are laid out in sequence and played back. The NLE offers a range of tools for trimming, splicing, cutting and arranging clips across the timeline. As digital NLE systems have advanced their toolset, their role has expanded and most consumer and professional NLE systems alike now include a host of features for colour manipulation, titling and visual effects, as well as tools for editing and mixing audio synchronized with the video image sequence.
Once a project is complete, the NLE system can then be used to export to movie in a variety of formats in context which may range from broadcast tape formats to compressed file formats for the Internet, DVD and mobile devices.
Video production is the process of creating video by capturing moving images (videography), and creating combinations and reductions of parts of this video in live production and post-production (video editing). In most cases the captured video will be recorded on the most current electronic media such as SD cards. In the past footage was captured on video tape, hard disk, or solid state storage. Video tape capture is now obsolete and solid state storage is reserved for just that, storage. It is now distributed digitally in formats such as the Moving Picture Experts Group format (.mpeg, .mpg, .mp4), QuickTime (.mov), Audio Video Interleave (.avi), Windows Media Video (.wmv), and DivX (.avi, .divx). It is the equivalent of filmmaking, but with images recorded digitally instead of on film stock.
Videography refers to the process of capturing moving images on electronic media (e.g., videotape, direct to disk recording, or solid state storage) and even streaming media. The term includes methods of video production and post-production. It was initially equivalent of cinematography (moving images recorded on film stock). The advent of digital video recording in the late 20th century blurred the distinction between videography and cinematography, as in both methods the intermittent mechanism became the same. Nowadays, any video work outside commercial motion picture production could be called videography.
The arrival of computers and the Internet in 1980s created a global environment where videography covered many more fields than just shooting video with a camera, including digital animation (such as Flash), gaming, web streaming, video blogging, still slideshows, remote sensing, spatial imaging, medical imaging, security camera imaging, and in general the production of most bitmap and vector based assets. As the field progresses, videographers may produce their assets entirely on a computer without ever involving an imaging device, using software-driven solutions. Moreover, the very concept of sociability and privacy are being reformed by the proliferation of cell-phone, surveillance video, or Action-cameras, which are spreading at an exceptional rate globally.
A videographer may be the actual camera operator or they may be the person in charge of the visual design of a production (the latter being the equivalent of a cinematographer).
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