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In psychology, apprehension (Lat. ad, "to"; prehendere, "to seize") is a term applied to a model of consciousness in which nothing is affirmed or denied of the object in question, but the mind is merely aware of ("seizes") it.
"Judgment" (says Reid, ed. Hamilton, i. p. 414) "is an act of the mind, specifically different from simple apprehension or the bare conception of a thing".
"Simple apprehension or conception can neither be true nor false."
This distinction provides for the large class of mental acts in which we are simply aware of, or "take in" a number of familiar objects, about which we in general make no judgment, unless our attention is suddenly called by a new feature.
Or again, two alternatives may be apprehended without any resultant judgment as to their respective merits.
Similarly, G.F. Stout stated that while we have a very vivid idea of a character or an incident in a work of fiction, we can hardly be said in any real sense to have any belief or to make any judgment as to its existence or truth.
With this mental state may be compared the purely aesthetic contemplation of music, wherein apart from, say, a false note, the faculty of judgment is for the time inoperative.
To these examples may be added the fact that one can fully understand an argument in all its bearings, without in any way judging its validity.
Without going into the question fully, it may be pointed out that the distinction between judgment and apprehension is relative.
In every kind of thought, there is judgment of some sort in a greater or less degree of prominence.
Judgment and thought are in fact psychologically distinguishable merely as different, though correlative, activities of consciousness.
Professor Stout further investigates the phenomena of apprehension, and comes to the conclusion that "it is possible to distinguish and identify a whole without apprehending any of its constituent details."
On the other hand, there is an expectation that such details will, as it were, emerge into consciousness.
Hence, he describes such apprehension as "implicit", and insofar as the implicit apprehension determines the order of such emergence, he describes it as "schematic".
A good example of this process is the use of formulae in calculations; ordinarily the formula is used without question; if attention is fixed upon it, the steps by which it is shown to be universally applicable emerge, and the "schema " is complete in detail.
With this result may be compared Kant's theory of apprehension as a synthetic act (the "synthesis of apprehension") by which the sensory elements of a perception are subjected to the formal conditions of time and space.
Creatively working with IT is a Skill developed over countless periods of time in coming to a sufficient
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This is IT - Information processing (digestion) followed by free-willed Deterministic Action ...
how we are supposed to function w Clarity and mindfully focused intent.
On what ? That IS as it should be: your prerogative.
pre·rog·a·tive n. The exclusive right and power to command, decide, rule, or judge.
Biofeedback is the process of gaining greater awareness of many physiological functions primarily using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will.
Some of the processes that can be controlled include brainwaves, muscle tone, skin conductance, heart rate and pain perception.
Biofeedback may be used to improve health, performance, and the physiological changes that often occur in conjunction with changes to thoughts, emotions, and behavior.
Eventually, these changes may be maintained without the use of extra equipment, for no equipment is necessarily required to practice biofeedback.
Biofeedback has been found to be effective for the treatment of headaches and migraines.
Wikipedia Human self-reflection
Human self-reflection is the capacity of humans to exercise introspection and the willingness to learn more about their fundamental nature, purpose and essence.
The earliest historical records demonstrate the great interest which humanity has had in itself.
Human self-reflection invariably leads to inquiry into the human condition and the essence of humankind as a whole.
Human self-reflection is related to the philosophy of consciousness, the topic of awareness, consciousness in general and the philosophy of mind.
Wikipedia Human behavior
Human behavior refers to the array of every physical action and observable emotion associated with individuals, as well as the human race as a whole.
While specific traits of one's personality and temperament may be more consistent, other behaviors will change as one moves from birth through adulthood.
In addition to being dictated by age and genetics, behavior, driven in part by thoughts and feelings, is an insight into individual psyche, revealing among other things attitudes and values.
Social behavior, a subset of human behavior, study the considerable influence of social interaction and culture.
Additional influences include ethics, encircling, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion and coercion.
The behavior of humans (and other organisms or even mechanisms) falls within a range with some behavior being common, some unusual, some acceptable, and some outside acceptable limits.
In sociology, behavior in general includes actions having no meaning, being not directed at other people, and thus all basic human actions.
Behavior in this general sense should not be mistaken with social behavior, which is a more advanced social action, specifically directed at other people.
The acceptability of behavior depends heavily upon social norms and is regulated by various means of social control.
Human behavior is studied by the specialized academic disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, social work, sociology, economics, and anthropology.
Human behavior is experienced throughout an individual's entire lifetime.
It includes the way they act based on different factors such as genetics, social norms, core faith, and attitude.
Behavior is impacted by certain traits each individual has.
The traits vary from person to person and can produce different actions or behavior from each person.
Social norms also impact behavior.
Due to the inherently conformist nature of human society in general, humans are pressured into following certain rules and displaying certain behaviors in society, which conditions the way people behave.
Different behaviors are deemed to be either acceptable or unacceptable in different societies and cultures.
Core faith can be perceived through the religion and philosophy of that individual.
It shapes the way a person thinks and this in turn results in different human behaviors.
Attitude can be defined as "the degree to which the person has a favorable or unfavorable evaluation of the behavior in question."
One's attitude is essentially a reflection of the behavior he or she will portray in specific situations.
Thus, human behavior is greatly influenced by the attitudes we use on a daily basis.
In psychology, an attitude is an expression of favor or disfavor toward a person, place, thing, or event (the attitude object).
Prominent psychologist Gordon Allport once described attitudes "the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology."
Attitude can be formed from a person's past and present.
Key topics in the study of attitudes include attitude measurement, attitude change, consumer behavior, and attitude-behavior relationships.
Emotion and attitude change
Emotion is a common component in persuasion, social influence, and attitude change.
Much of attitude research emphasized the importance of affective or emotion components.
Emotion works hand-in-hand with the cognitive process, or the way we think, about an issue or situation.
Emotional appeals are commonly found in advertising, health campaigns and political messages.
Recent examples include no-smoking health campaigns and political campaign advertising emphasizing the fear of terrorism.
Attitudes and attitude objects are functions of cognitive, affective and conative components.
Attitudes are part of the brain’s associative networks, the spider-like structures residing in long term memory that consist of affective and cognitive nodes.
By activating an affective or emotion node, attitude change may be possible, though affective and cognitive components tend to be intertwined.
In primarily affective networks, it is more difficult to produce cognitive counterarguments in the resistance to persuasion and attitude change.
Affective forecasting, otherwise known as intuition or the prediction of emotion, also impacts attitude change.
Research suggests that predicting emotions is an important component of decision making, in addition to the cognitive processes.
How we feel about an outcome may override purely cognitive rationales.
In terms of research methodology, the challenge for researchers is measuring emotion and subsequent impacts on attitude.
Since we cannot see into the brain, various models and measurement tools have been constructed to obtain emotion and attitude information.
Measures may include the use of physiological cues like facial expressions, vocal changes, and other body rate measures.
For instance, fear is associated with raised eyebrows, increased heart rate and increase body tension (Dillard, 1994).
Other methods include concept or network mapping, and using primes or word cues in the era.
Components of emotion appeals
Any discrete emotion can be used in a persuasive appeal; this may include jealousy, disgust, indignation, fear, blue, disturbed, haunted, and anger.
Fear is one of the most studied emotional appeals in communication and social influence research.
Important consequences of fear appeals and other emotion appeals include the possibility of reactance which may lead to either message rejections or source rejection and the absence of attitude change.
As the EPPM suggests, there is an optimal emotion level in motivating attitude change.
If there is not enough motivation, an attitude will not change; if the emotional appeal is overdone, the motivation can be paralyzed thereby preventing attitude change.
Emotions perceived as negative or containing threat are often studied more than perceived positive emotions like humor.
Though the inner-workings of humor are not agreed upon, humor appeals may work by creating incongruities in the mind.
Recent research has looked at the impact of humor on the processing of political messages.
While evidence is inconclusive, there appears to be potential for targeted attitude change is receivers with low political message involvement.
Important factors that influence the impact of emotion appeals include self efficacy, attitude accessibility, issue involvement, and message/source features.
Self efficacy is a perception of one’s own human agency; in other words, it is the perception of our own ability to deal with a situation.
It is an important variable in emotion appeal messages because it dictates a person’s ability to deal with both the emotion and the situation.
For example, if a person is not self-efficacious about their ability to impact the global environment, they are not likely to change their attitude or behavior about global warming.
Dillard (1994) suggests that message features such as source non-verbal communication, message content, and receiver differences can impact the emotion impact of fear appeals.
The characteristics of a message are important because one message can elicit different levels of emotion for different people.
Thus, in terms of emotion appeals messages, one size does not fit all.
Attitude accessibility refers to the activation of an attitude from memory in other words, how readily available is an attitude about an object, issue, or situation.
Issue involvement is the relevance and salience of an issue or situation to an individual.
Issue involvement has been correlated with both attitude access and attitude strength.
Past studies conclude accessible attitudes are more resistant to change.
Wikipedia Id, ego and super-ego
Id, ego, and super-ego are the three parts of the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche; they are the three theoretical constructs in terms of whose activity and interaction our mental life is described.
According to this model of the psyche, the id is the set of uncoordinated instinctual trends; the super-ego plays the critical and moralizing role; and the ego is the organized, realistic part that mediates between the desires of the id and the super-ego.
The super-ego can stop one from doing certain things that one's id may want to do.
Although the model is structural and makes reference to an apparatus, the id, ego and super-ego are purely psychological concepts and do not correspond to (somatic) structures of the brain such as the kind dealt with by neuroscience.
The super-ego is observable in how someone can view themself as guilty, bad, pathetic, shameful, weak, and feel compelled to do certain things.
Freud (1923) in The Ego and the Id discusses "the general character of harshness and cruelty exhibited by the [ego] ideal – its dictatorial 'Thou shalt.'"
Freud (1933) hypothesizes different levels of ego ideal or superego development with increasingly greater ideals:
nor must it be forgotten that a child has a different estimate of his parents at different periods of his life.
At the time at which the Oedipus complex gives place to the super-ego they are something quite magnificent; but later they lose much of this.
Identifications then come about with these later parents as well, and indeed they regularly make important contributions to the formation of character; but in that case they only affect the ego, they no longer influence the super-ego, which has been determined by the earliest parental images.
The earlier in development, the greater the estimate of parental power.
When one defuses into rivalry with the parental imago, then one feels the 'dictatorial thou shalt' to manifest the power the imago represents.
Four general levels are found in Freud's work: the auto-erotic, the narcissistic, the anal, and the phallic.
These different levels of development and the relations to parental imagos correspond to specific id forms of aggression and affection.
For example, aggressive desires to decapitate, to dismember, to cannibalize, to swallow whole, to suck dry, to make disappear, to blow away, etc.
animate myths, are enjoyed in fantasy and horror movies, and are observable in the fantasies and repressions of patients across cultures.
The concepts themselves arose at a late stage in the development of Freud's thought as the "structural model" (which succeeded his "economic model" and "topographical model") and was first discussed in his 1920 essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle and was formalized and elaborated upon three years later in his The Ego and the Id.
Freud's proposal was influenced by the ambiguity of the term "unconscious" and its many conflicting uses.
Wikipedia Beyond the Pleasure Principle
Beyond the Pleasure Principle (German: Jenseits des Lustprinzips) is a 1920 essay by Sigmund Freud that marks a major turning point in his theoretical approach.
Previously, Freud attributed most human behavior to the sexual instinct (Eros or libido).
With this essay, Freud went "beyond" the simple pleasure principle, developing his theory of drives with the addition of the death drive(s) (Todestrieb[e]) (often referred to as "Thanatos").
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
It is the subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events, such as the feeling of imminent death.
Anxiety is not the same as fear, which is a response to a real or perceived immediate threat, whereas anxiety is the expectation of future threat.
Anxiety is a feeling of fear, uneasiness, and worry, usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a situation that is only subjectively seen as menacing.
It is often accompanied by muscular tension, restlessness, fatigue and problems in concentration.
Anxiety can be appropriate, but when experienced regularly the individual may suffer from an anxiety disorder.
People facing anxiety may withdraw from situations which have provoked anxiety in the past.
There are various types of anxiety.
Existential anxiety can occur when a person faces angst, an existential crisis, or nihilistic feelings.
People can also face mathematical anxiety, somatic anxiety, stage fright, or test anxiety.
Social anxiety and stranger anxiety are caused when people are apprehensive around strangers or other people in general.
Furthermore, anxiety has been linked with physical symptoms such as IBS and can heighten other mental health illnesses such as OCD and panic disorder.
Anxiety can be either a short term "state" or a long term "trait".
Whereas trait anxiety represents worrying about future events, close to the concept of neuroticism, anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear.
Anxiety disorders are partly genetic but may also be due to drug use, including alcohol, caffeine, and benzodiazepines (which are often prescribed to treat anxiety), as well as withdrawal from drugs of abuse.
They often occur with other mental disorders, particularly bipolar disorder, eating disorders, major depressive disorder, or certain personality disorders.
Common treatment options include lifestyle changes, medication, and therapy.
the action of looking thoughtfully at something for a long time.
"the road is too busy for leisurely contemplation of the scenery"
synonyms: viewing, examination, inspection, observation, survey, Studio, scrutiny
"the contemplation of beautiful objects"
deep reflective thought.
"he would retire to his room for Studio or contemplation"
synonyms: thought, reflection, meditation, consideration, rumination, deliberation, reverie, introspection, brown Studio; More
the state of being thought about or planned.
Contemplation means profound thinking about something.
The word contemplation comes from the Latin word contemplatio.
Its root is also that of the Latin word templum, a piece of ground consecrated for the taking of auspices, or a building for worship, derived either from Proto-Indo-European base *tem- "to cut", and so a "place reserved or cut out" or from the Proto-Indo-European base *temp- "to stretch", and thus referring to a cleared space in front of an altar.
The Latin word contemplatio was used to translate the Greek word theoria.
In a religious sense, contemplation is usually a type of prayer or meditation.
1. the ability to judge well. "an astonishing lack of discernment"
2. (in Christian contexts) perception in the absence of judgment with a view to obtaining spiritual direction and understanding.
"without providing for a time of healing and discernment, there will be no hope of living through this present moment without a shattering of our common life"
Discernment is the ability to obtain sharp perceptions or to judge well (or the activity of so doing).
In the case of judgement, discernment can be psychological or moral in nature.
In the sphere of judgement, discernment involves going past the mere perception of something and making nuanced judgments about its properties or qualities.
Considered as a virtue, a discerning individual is considered to possess wisdom, and be of good judgement; especially so with regard to subject matter often overlooked by others.
Finding God's Will In A Sea Of Nonsense Spirithome.com
Emotion From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Emotion, in everyday speech, is any relatively brief conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a high degree of pleasure or displeasure.
Scientific discourse has drifted to other meanings and there is no consensus on a definition.
Emotion is often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation.
In some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion.
Those acting primarily on emotion may seem as if they are not thinking, but mental processes are still essential, particularly in the interpretation of events.
For example, the realization of danger and subsequent arousal of the nervous system (e.g. rapid heartbeat and breathing, sweating, muscle tension) is integral to the experience of fear.
Other theories, however, claim that emotion is separate from and can precede cognition.
Emotions are complex.
According to some theories, they are a state of feeling that results in physical and psychological changes that influence our behavior.
The physiology of emotion is closely linked to arousal of the nervous system with various states and strengths of arousal relating, apparently, to particular emotions.
Emotion is also linked to behavioral tendency.
Extroverted people are more likely to be social and express their emotions, while introverted people are more likely to be more socially withdrawn and conceal their emotions.
Emotion is often the driving force behind motivation, positive or negative.
According to other theories, emotions are not causal forces but simply syndromes of components, which might include motivation, feeling, behavior, and physiological changes, but no one of these components is the emotion.
Nor is the emotion an entity that causes these components.
Emotions involve different components, such as subjective experience, cognitive processes, expressive behavior, psychophysiological changes, and instrumental behavior.
At one time, academics attempted to identify the emotion with one of the components: William James with a subjective experience, behaviorists with instrumental behavior, psychophysiologists with physiological changes, and so on.
More recently, emotion is said to consist of all the components.
The different components of emotion are categorized somewhat differently depending on the academic discipline.
In psychology and philosophy, emotion typically includes a subjective, conscious experience characterized primarily by psychophysiological expressions, biological reactions, and mental states.
A similar multicomponential description of emotion is found in sociology.
For example, Peggy Thoits described emotions as involving physiological components, cultural or emotional labels (e.g., anger, surprise etc.), expressive body actions, and the appraisal of situations and contexts.
Research on emotion has increased significantly over the past two decades with many fields contributing including psychology, neuroscience, endocrinology, medicine, history, sociology, and even computer science.
The numerous theories that attempt to explain the origin, neurobiology, experience, and function of emotions have only fostered more intense research on this topic.
Current areas of research in the concept of emotion include the development of materials that stimulate and elicit emotion.
In addition PET scans and fMRI scans help Studio the affective processes in the brain.
It also is influenced by hormones and neurotransmitters such as dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, oxytocin, cortisol and GABA.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
Fear in human beings may occur in response to a specific stimulus occurring in the present, or in anticipation or expectation of a future threat perceived as a risk to body or life.
The fear response arises from the perception of danger leading to confrontation with or escape from/avoiding the threat (also known as the fight-or-flight response), which in extreme cases of fear (horror and terror) can be a freeze response or paralysis.
In humans and animals, fear is modulated by the process of cognition and learning.
Thus fear is judged as rational or appropriate and irrational or inappropriate.
An irrational fear is called a phobia.
Psychologists such as John B. Watson, Robert Plutchik, and Paul Ekman have suggested that there is only a small set of basic or innate emotions and that fear is one of them.
This hypothesized set includes such emotions as joy, sadness, fright, dread, horror, panic, anxiety, acute stress reaction and anger.
Fear is closely related to, but should be distinguished from, the emotion anxiety, which occurs as the result of threats that are perceived to be uncontrollable or unavoidable.
The fear response serves survival by generating appropriate behavioral responses, so it has been preserved throughout evolution.
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